From Modern physics to Nietzsche’s Dionysian-and-Apollonian ‘REALITY’
From Modern physics to Nietzsche’s Dionysian and Apollonian
The APOLLONIAN REALITY REDUCTION is popularly employed, in WESTERN CULTURE constructions of reality, as a SUBSTITUTE REALITY rather than as a TOOL OF INFERENCE of the INEFFABLE-because-NONLOCAL-and-IMPLICIT DIONYSIAN REALITY. This deployment of the APOLLONIAN as a SUBSTITUTE REALITY rather than as an INFERENCE of the ineffable-because-nonlocal-and-implicit DIONYSiAN REALITY is an error that we WESTERN CULTURE ADHERENTS continue to be troubled by.
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WHAT THIS IS ABOUT: I am writing this to point out a major source of confusion coming from language-based representations of reality which continues to divide and polarize our WESTERN CULTURE social collective. This involves what Nietzsche calls the DIONYSIAN and APOLLONIAN senses of reality. While the following explanation will cover this, the DIONYSIAN reality corresponds with Modern physics wherein FIGURE-and-GROUND-are-ONE as with a CLOUD in the ATMOSPHERE (i.e. in Modern physics, material entities are condensations of the electromagnietic field), while the APOLLONIAN reality corresponds with Newtonian physics wherein FIGURE-and-GROUND-are-TWO (i.e. where the FIGURE is INDEPENDENT of the GROUND). In Modern WESTERN CULTURE, the APOLLONIAN reality is currently dominant;
In a few years, it will be 150 years since Nietzsche called for a return to a Dionysian culture in his The Birth of Tragedy, at least in the Western context. Can we today say that the spirit of our contemporary culture is Dionysian? I would say not, although there are pockets of Dionysian practices in general culture and many Dionysian movements in the domain of the spirit. Modern dance was inspired by Nietzsche’s ideas on the Dionysian; Kandinsky appropriated the Dionysian into visual arts and thereby initiated abstract painting; in philosophy Bataille and Heidegger developed ideas on ecstasy and ecstatic disposition; installation and performance art forces human capabilities and operates along limit experiences; the whole drug culture, though fraught with nihilism (and in the US with racism) has Dionysian elements, and finally, psychoanalysis promotes the Dionysian indirectly insofar as it opens up new vistas and experiences for the non-rational in the human. However, these Dionysian movements of the last 100 years or so are divergent and lack coherence to a large extent. To make the Dionysian the spirit of our times will take much effort and also chance. As for the former, we can do our share; as for the latter, we can hope for Dionysus to appear.
– – – from … The Dionysian Revealed Itself As Truth: Have We Understood it? By Yunus Tuncel
To give a very simple example of what’s involved in this shift in understanding, the APOLLONIAN conceptualization has us see forms as LOCAL, INDEPENDENT THINGS-IN-THEMSELVES with their own powers of AUTHORING actions and development such that we see the TOWN as something that is GROWING larger and more populous and productive in a FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-TWO sense (content and container as two). However, the DIONYSIAN conceptualization has us see TOWNING in the TRANSFORMING LANDSCAPE as a RELATIONAL FORM in the transforming relational continuum. The DIONYSIAN conceptualizing is supported by Modern physics while the APOLLONIAN conceptualization is supported by Newtonian physics and manifests in the WESTERN CULTURE concepts of INDEPENDENT BEING OF ‘HUMANS’, ‘NATIONS’ and ‘CORPORATIONS’.
Modern physics, indigenous aboriginal cultures, Taoism/Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta have this DIONYSIAN understanding that EVERYTHING-IS-RELATED (mitakuye oyasin).
This essay associates the DIONYSIAN with FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-ONE, and the APOLLONIAN with FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-TWO.
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The following comments explore the concept of FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-ONE (Modern physics and EASTERN CULTURE language representations of reality and the DIONYSIAN) vis a vis FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-TWO (Newtonian physics and WESTERN CULTURE language representations of reality and the APOLLONIAN). The Nietzschean concepts of DIONYSIAN and APOLLONIAN correspond, respectively, to FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-ONE and FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-TWO.
The Earth can be understood as a local thing-in-itself, a spherical mass but when we conceive of and portray the earth in that fashion, we invent at the same time, an absolute empty and infinite containing space (Euclidian space). Still, it is convenient to represent the EARTH as if it were a local thing-in-itself with its own (notional) powers of ‘turning round’ and ‘orbiting the sun’. Otherwise, we would have to find a way to use language to represent the universe as a transforming relational continuum within which there is an EARTHING and wherein EVERYTHING IS IN FLUX, as Heraclitus suggested and as Modern physics field theory affirms. Because such a reality is unbounded in spacetime (it is a transforming relational continuum) it is not possible to capture it in a LOCAL and EXPLICIT representation since a world in flux is NONLOCAL and IMPLICIT.
Instead of trying to find the words to represent EARTHING as a kind of Van Gogh STARRY NIGHT swirling of energy in the TRANSFORMING RELATIONAL CONTINUUM, … it is more convenient to SPEAK in terms of “THE EARTH” as if it existed on its own, in its own right, and as if it possessed its own powers of sourcing actions (turning round) and development (shedding a moon and swallowing up meteors).
And just as our Copernicus said to us : It is more convenient to suppose the earth turns round, since thus the laws of astronomy are expressible in a much simpler language ; this one would say: It is more convenient to suppose the earth turns round, since thus the laws of mechanics are expressible in a much simpler language. . This does not preclude maintaining that absolute space, that is to say the mark to which it would be necessary to refer the earth to know whether it really moves, has no objective existence. Hence, this affirmation; ‘the earth turns round’ has no meaning, since it can be verified by no experiment; since such an experiment, not only could not be either realized or dreamed by the boldest Jules Verne, but can not be conceived of without contradiction; or rather these two propositions; ‘the earth turns round,’ and, ‘it is more convenient to suppose the earth turns round’ have the same meaning; there is nothing more in the one than in the other. “ — Henri Poincaré, ‘Science and Hypothesis’, Ch. VII Relative Motion and Absolute Motion
Nevertheless, Modern physics holds that THERE IS EARTHING IN THE TRANSFORMNG RELATIONAL CONTINUUM, … rather than there being some LOCAL THING-IN-ITSELF; i.e. ‘the EARTH’, that ‘TURNS ROUND’, as if ‘the EARTH’ were the AUTHOR of its own actions, as such language as ‘THE EARTH TURNS ROUND’ asserts. The Modern physics alternative is; THERE IS EARTHING IN THE TRANSFORMING WAVE-FIELD. This latter statement preserves the overall FLUIDITY and does not invoke the abstract notion of THE EARTH-AS-IF-IT-WERE-A-LOCAL-THING-IN-ITSELF situated within a space that IS NOT IT, and notionally having ITS OWN POWERS OF SOURCING ACTIONS AND DEVELOPMENT, as in the DOUBLE ERROR of NAMING and GRAMMAR.
Because the universe is a transforming relational continuum, an energy-based-wave-field featuring local concentrations of energy known as masses and described in Modern physics as ‘concentrations of the electromagnetic field’, in this FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-ONE (MATTER-AND-FIELD-AS-ONE) WORLD, there are no grounds for using language and binary logic to construct an abstract FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-TWO REPRESENTATION wherein we impute THING-IN-ITSELF STATUS to THE EARTH and conflate this with GRAMMAR to impute to this THING-IN-ITSELF, “ITS OWN (NOTIONAL) POWERS OF SOURCING ACTIONS (rotating) AND DEVELOPMENT (incorporating meteors)”. The primary reality is the ENERGY-FIELD aka THE TRANSFORMING RELATIONAL CONTINUUM within which EARTHING is one of the many developing features. The ENTIRE CONTINUUM IS IN FLUX, INCLUDING THE FEATURES FORMING WITHIN IT SUCH AS THE EARTHING FEATURE.
In spite of this fluid reality wherein FIGURE (EARTH) and GROUND (ENERGY-FIELD) ARE ONE, it is “more convenient” in regard to language-based representation, to invoke a FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-TWO topology and thus to suppose ‘THE EARTH TURNS ROUND” IMPLYING THAT IT DOES SO IN AN ABSOLUTE SPACE OF INFINITE EXTENT. Modern physics exposes this as UNREAL ABSTRACTION and shows that the material aspect seen as the FIGURE is a region of concentration of the electromagnetic field while the GROUND is the electromagnetic field such that FIGURE-and-GROUND-are-ONE.
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The following comparison of the DIONYSIAN and APOLLONIAN suggests that the APOLLONIAN is like a … cookie cutter contraints?
Nietzsche held that the Dionysian resulted from the absence of the Apollonian (and not the other way around) so in a sense the Apollonian held a kind of primacy. Indeed the Greeks themselves held that Apollo was the superior God.
when the flow stops (freezes), the Dionysian gives way to the Apollonian, …. it takes a melt-down of explicit structure (liberation) to go the other way. the child is flexible and inspired (all forms of enthusiasm and ecstasy are Dionysian. The Apollonian is structure, order, independence (one-that stands out and distinguishes itself from the otherness, while Dionysian is one with everything.
The DIONYSIAN is thus akin to where there are PLANETINGS IN THE TRANSFORMING RELATIONAL CONTINUUM, a reality wherein there are NO LOCAL, INDEPENDENT THINGS-IN-THEMSELVES (NO ‘APOLLONIAN’), …. where this is no FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-ONE reality. In other words, the FIGURE-AND-GROUND-as-ONE reality ‘drops off the psychological radar screen’, as the SUBSTITUTE FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-TWO APOLLONIAN REALITY “TAKES ITS PLACE’. this one would say: It is more convenient to suppose the earth turns round, since thus the laws of mechanics are expressible in a much simpler language.
Consider instead, the FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-ONE conceptualization wherein everything is in flux. This brings us into agreement with the DIONYSIAN wherein EVERYTHING IS RELATED (mitakuye oyasin).
“Since according to our present conceptions the elementary particles of matter are also, in their essence, nothing else than condensations of the electromagnetic field, our present view of the universe presents two realities which are completely separated from each other conceptually, although connected causally, namely, gravitational ether and electromagnetic field, or as they might also be called space and matter. Of course it would be a great advance if we could succeed in comprehending the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field together as one unified conformation. Then for the first time the epoch of theoretical physics founded by Faraday and Maxwell would reach a satisfactory conclusion. The contrast between ether and matter would fade away, and, through the general theory of relativity, the whole of physics would become a complete system of thought, like geometry, kinematics, and the theory of gravitation.” — Einstein, ‘Ether and the Theory of Relativity’
So, while Nietzsche’s DIONYSIAN and APOLLONIAN categories, which constitute two different ways of UNDERSTANDING REALITY; i.e. DIONYSIAN wherein we understand ourselves as ONE-WITH-EVERYTHING, and APOLLONIAN wherein we understand ourselves as INDEPENDENT AUTHORS of our own actions and developments. Schroedinger’s explorations in Modern physics lead to the same CHOICE of how to understanding the relationship of SELF and WORLD, a WORLD which according to implications of ‘FIELD’ theory as cited above by Einstein, … FIGURE-and-GROUND (MATTER AND SPACE) ARE ONE AND “NOT” TWO.
“ … the insight is not new. The earliest records to my knowledge date back some 2,500 years or more. From the early great Upanishads the recognition ATHMAN = BRAHMAN (the personal self equals the omnipresent, all-comprehending eternal self) was in Indian thought considered, far from being blasphemous, to represent the quintessence of deepest insight into the happenings of the world. The striving of all the scholars of Vedanta was, after having learnt to pronounce with their lips, really to assimilate in their minds this grandest of all thoughts.
Again, the mystics of many centuries, independently, yet in perfect harmony with each other (somewhat like the particles in an ideal gas) have described, each of them, the unique experience of his or her life in terms that can be condensed in the phrase: DEUS FACTUS SUM (I have become God).
To Western ideology the thought has remained a stranger. – Erwin Schroedinger, ‘What is LIfe’, ‘Epilogue: On Determinism and Free Will’
– Irwin Schroedinger, ‘What is LIfe’, ‘Epilogue: On Determinism and Free Will’
STOP HERE FOR SUM-UP REFLECTION:
Nietzsche’s allusion to the DIONYSIAN and APOLLONIAN speaks to the COGNITIVE OPTION we have in understanding REALITY as (DIONYSIAN) wherein everything is related as in the indigenous aboriginal aphorism MITAKUYE OYASIN, … OR, in understand REALITY as (APOLLONIAN) consisting of a collection of LOCAL, INDEPENDENTLY EXISTING MATERIAL ENTITIES that move about within an ABSOLUTE FIXED, EMPTY AND INFINITE CONTAINING SPACE, the actions and developments of which WE ASSUME derive from INTERNAL AUTHORSHIP. Nietzsche further describes how we employ the DOUBLE ERROR of NAMING and GRAMMAR to render THIS INTELLECTUAL ABSTRACTION of LOCAL AUTHORING, which becomes the basic ENABLER for us to construct an APOLLONIAN SUBSTITUTE REALITY. The ADVANTAGE of this APOLLONIAN SUBSTITUTE REALITY is that it is “EFFABLE” because LOCAL and EXPLICIT unlike the DIONYSIAN flowing reality which is NONLOCAL and IMPLICIT and thus INEFFABLE.
THE UTILITY OF LANGUAGE, even though reality must be DUMBED DOWN from the DIONYSIAN (wherein everything is in flux) to the APOLLONIAN (a reduction to explicit local things-in-themselves with their own notional AUTHORING powers) in order to formulate EFFABLE and thus SHAREABLE REPRESENTATIONS, is ENORMOUS, even if the REPRESENTATIONS are REDUCTIONS from the REAL DIONYSIAN REALITY wherein ‘everything is in flux’ within the transforming relational continuum aka the Wave-field aka the Tao.
The UTILITY in the SHAREBILITY of the reduced APOLLONIAN REPRESENTATION WHICH CAN BE COPIED AND BROADLY SHARED is SO ENORMOUS that we tend to GET CARRIED AWAY by the AMAZING ACCESS TO OTHERS’ OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIENCES, THAT WE TEND TO OVERLOOK THE FACT OF THE ‘DUMBING DOWN’ (FROM DIONYSIAN TO APOLLONIAN) THAT MAKES THIS SHARING POSSIBLE. AS A RESULT, WE EXPOSE OURSELVES TO THE DOUBLE ERROR BASED SELF-DECEPTION WHEREIN WE EMPLOY THIS REDUCED-TO-APOLLONIAN SUBSTITUTE REALITY AS OUR ‘OPERATIVE REALITY’. For example, the reduction of the FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-ONE (DIONYSIAN) TOWNING-IN-THE-TRANSFORMING-LANDSCAPE to the FIGURE-and-GROUND-as-TWO (APOLLONIAN) “TOWN” that is “GROWING LARGER AND MORE POPULOUS AND PRODUCTIVE IN ITS AUTHORING CAPACITIES” is DOUBLE ERROR based abstraction that gives us the impression of LOCAL AUTHORING.
This SUBSTITUTE REALITY based on notional LOCAL and EXPLICIT NAMING-instantiated things-in-themselves with GRAMMAR-given notional powers of LOCAL AUTHORING of actions and developments can give us the sense of I AM THE AUTHOR of this action and development, or, alternatively, THE THING I NAME and GIVE BEING TO, I equip with GRAMMAR to impart notional powers of LOCAL AUTHORING of actions and development to, whether person, social collective, animal, family, nation, corporation, river, hurricane or any NAMING-instantiated notional LOCAL THING-IN-ITSELF.
The DOUBLE ERROR INVENTING OF THESE APOLLONIAN NAMING-and-GRAMMAR based LOCALLY ASSERTING AND AUTHORING AGENCIES …. SUBSTITUTES and REPLACES (but only in the psyche) the DIONYSIAN figure-and-ground-as-ONE sense-experience-affirmed reality, the reality that is also affirmed in the Modern physics context of the elementary particles of matter are also, in their essence, nothing else than condensations of the electromagnetic field
The EFFABILITY in LOCAL and EXPLICIT abstraction terms of the APOLLONIAN is what makes language based discourse possible, UPSTAGING, because of its vocalize-ability, the UN-REDUCED and thus INEFFABLE sensory experience of the DIONYSIAN which is left behind in the ‘shadows’ as we excitedly share our APOLLONIAN reductions which give language-based discourse the glamour role in communications, so much so that the tool of the APOLLONIAN EXPLICIT runs away with the WORKMAN, the HUMAN with the DIVINE (DIONYSIAN IMPLICIT).
We WESTERN CULTURE ADHERENTS have used language, with its capability of reducing sense-experience DIONYSIAN reality, which is INEFFABLE-because-NONLOCAL-and-IMPLICIT, to APOLLONIAN reality, which is EFFABLE-because-LOCAL-and-EXPLICIT, … NOT SIMPLY AS A ‘WITTGENSTEIN LADDER’ aka a BOOTSTRAPPING TOOL that allows us to formulate EFFABLE-APOLLONIAN SUBSTITUTE REALITIES that INFER the real DIONYSIAN SENSE-EXPERIENCE (INCLUSIONAL) REALITY, but to MISTAKENLY EMPLOY APOLLONIAN SUBSTITUTE REALITY AS OUR OPERATIVE REALITY.
Thus, we MISINTERPRET APOLLONIAN expressions like THE TOWN IS GROWING LARGER which are good only for INFERENCE of the TRANSFORMING LANDSCAPE, and WRONGLY EMPLOY these APOLLONIAN representations as the OPERATIVE REALITY. YET, in our sense-experience reality, the DIONYSIAN is operative wherein FIGURE-and-GROUND-are-ONE; i.e. the DIONYSIAN REALITY is that there is TOWNING in the TRANSFORMING LANDSCAPE (the transforming relational continuum).
OF COURSE, the DIONYSIAN IS INEFFABLE because NONLOCAL and IMPLICIT and a language-based articulation of the DIONYSIAN wherein everything is in a relational, transformative flux, would require an infinite stream of descriptive language, hence the APOLLONIAN SUBSTITUTE REALITY as an EFFABLE EXPEDIENT. But make no mistake, the SUBSTITUTE APOLLONIAN REALITY which is EFFABLE-because-LOCAL and EXPLICIT is no REPLACEMENT of the DIONYSIAN REALITY which is INEFFABLE-because-NONLOCAL-and-IMPLICIT, … but rather a ‘DUMBED DOWN SUBSTITUTE where we fabricate representations such as THE TOWN IS GROWING for ‘THERE IS TOWNING IN THE TRANSFORMING RELATIONAL CONTINUUM’. Similarly, we fabricate representations such as THE HUMAN IS GROWING for ‘THERE IS HUMANING IN THE TRANSFORMING RELATIONAL CONTINUUM (the Wave-field aka the Tao).
THE WESTERN CULTURE PROBLEM: The MISTAKEN SUBSTITUTING of the APOLLONIAN for the DIONYSIAN
While there are discussions in some psychological -philosophical quarters that point to the mistaken SUBSTITUTION of the DIONYSIAN by the APOLLONIAN; e.g. The Dionysian Revealed Itself As Truth: Have We Understood it? By Yunus Tuncel https://agonist.nietzschecircle.com/wp/dionysian-revealed-truth-understood-yunus-tuncel/ such observations, as the author points out, do not have much impact in our WESTERN CULTURE habit of (MIS) understanding sense-experience reality because of the deep entrenchment of the APOLLONIAN SUBSTITUTE REALITY as our WESTERN CULTURE OPERATIVE REALITY.
An INSIDIOUS IMPACT of this misplaced belief in the APOLLONIAN as the operative reality is that we WESTERN CULTURE ADHERENTS have come to believe that every development in the transforming relational continuum may be explained in terms of a LOCAL AUTHOR of actions and developments, an abstract notion that we CONSTRUCT by employing NAMING and GRAMMAR together, as a DOUBLE ERROR combination as in the example ‘the TOWN is GROWING’ which effectively SUBSTITUTES for our sense-experience affirmed awareness of TOWNING in the TRANSFORMING LANDSCAPE. This SUBSTITUTE REALITY demands, for logical consistency, our invention of a LOCAL AUTHOR of the GROWTH of the TOWN, which we supply by means of CARTOON IMAGES of a collection of little human carpenters and workers who we then purport to be the GROWTH and DEVELOPMENT of the TOWN. This SUBSTITUTE REALITY satisfies the intellectual needs of the psyche or in other words MAKES SENSE so that the sense-experience understanding of inclusion in the TRANSFORMING LANDSCAPE is stillborn and evaporates on emerging into awareness since it is no longer needed, its role having been hijacked (in the manner of Cuckoo’s egg implantation) by the APOLLONIAN SUBSTITUTE REALITY featuring the TOWN (local thing-in-itself) that is GROWING (with GRAMMAR-given powers of local AUTHORING of growth and development).
WESTERN CULTURE ‘OPERATIVE REALITY” is based on the SUBSTITUTING of the APOLLONIAN EFFABLE-because-LOCAL-and-EXPLICIT pseudo-reality for the DIONYSIAN INEFFABLE-because-NONLOCAL-and-IMPLICIT sense-experience reality. Hence Yunus Tuncel’s lament in the above-cited article.
The issues that are cropping up as a result of our WESTERN CULTURE ADHERENT SUBSTITUTING of APOLLONIAN REALITY for DIONYSIAN REALITY are many and varied, however, all have the common characteristic of the misguided belief in LOCAL AUTHORING and the emotional error wherein EGO swells the HEAD (APOLLONIAN PRIDE) rather than the NONLOCAL TRANSFORMATION wherein INSPIRATION fills the HEART (DIONYSIAN ecstasy).
ARE WE REALLY the team of ant-like humans constructing our local TOWNS and thus attributing LOCAL POWERS OF AUTHORING actions and development to ourselves, … as will satisfy the APOLLONIAN sense of reality wherein EGO swells the head, or are INCLUDED IN A TRANSFORMING RELATIONAL CONTINUUM THAT IS GREATER THAN OURSELVES, as fits with the DIONYSIAN sense of reality wherein INSPIRATION fills the heart? Our WESTERN CULTURE awards us ‘credits’ for our notional AUTHORING achievements and these credits serve as certificates of SOCIAL RECOGNITION AND STATUS as far as the AUTHORING of positive actions and developments are concerned. The flip side is WESTERN CULTURE awarding of ‘demerits’ for AUTHORING Of negative actions and developments.
In the DIONYSIAN reality, the abstract APOLLONIAN concept of LOCAL AUTHORING dissolves in the fluid reality of relational transformation, dissolving with those traditions of REWARDING and PUNISHING based on the abstraction of LOCAL AUTHORING. While indigenous aboriginal culture adherents raised within a DIONYSIAN reality, the POTLATCH tradition underscores the understanding of the reality dynamic as NONLOCAL and IMPLICIT where the understanding is that we all share inclusion in an all-including transforming relational continuum aka the Wave-field aka the Tao. The ethic and moral path in this case is in moving and acting so as to cultivate and sustain relational harmony and subsume relational dissonance. THERE IS NO APOLONIAN ASSUMPTION OF LOCAL AUTHORSHIP in this way of life, there only the DIONYSIAN SENSE-EXPERIENCE of INCLUSION in the TRANSFORMING RELATIONAL CONTINUUM.
We WESTERN CULTURE ADHERENTS remain STUCK (in a psychological sense) within an ARTIFICIAL APOLLONIAN SUBSTITUTE REALITY featuring LOCAL AUTHORING of actions and developments, and a system of rewards and punishments based on assessment of individual AUTHORING of actions and developments as to their POSITIVE or NEGATIVE value. THIS IS A CRAZY-MAKER. The APOLLONIAN is not competent for deployment as the OPERATIVE REALITY and just because it can be represented in EFFABLE-because-LOCAL-and-EXPLICIT terms does not over-ride the reality of its innate INCOMPLETENESS, the same INCOMPLETENESS as found in Goedel’s theory of the incompleteness of all finite systems of logic. There is COMPLETENESS in the DIONYSIAN ECSTASY but this is only attainable where one takes the risk of letting go of the LOCAL and EXPLICIT APOLLONIAN SUBSTITUTE REALITY. We must ‘let go’ of scrutinizing crows-eye view reality that ‘The TOWN is GROWING’ in order to OPEN UP TO the SENSORY EXPERIENCE AWARENESS OF OUR INCLUSION in the TOWNING in the TRANSFORMING LANDSCAPE. We must open up to allowing ourselves our real-life experience of ‘being one with everything’ as in the Ojibwa aphorism ‘mitakuye oyasin’. [Mitákuye Oyás’iŋ (All Are Related) is a phrase from the Lakota language. It reflects the world view of interconnectedness held by the Lakota people of Turtle Island.]
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